Scottish Alliance for Geoscience, Environment and Society

Carol Barbone

Research interests:

Environmental Policy
Marine Governance and Reform
Marine Protected Areas
Ecosystem Services
Society’s Relationship with the Sea

Career history:

– PhD Student (2018-2024)
– MSc Environmental Partnership Management

– BA (Hons) Art History with History

Active research projects:

Marine Protected Areas and Brexit – Navigating Complexity and Securing Reforms for Sustainable Marine Systems

Brexit has major implications for marine protected area designation and management in the UK and across the UK devolved nations. Marine conservation is a shared responsibility between the EU and member states, with the EU setting policy under the Habitats Directive, Birds Directive and the EU Biodiversity Strategy. Under the Directive, the UK, and devolved administrations, designate and manage a range of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas. These marine and coastal sites form the backbone of the UK protected area network and are complimented by a range of national and local designations including Nature Conservation MPAs (Scotland) and Marine Conservation Zones (England).

This PhD project will examine in detail the consequences of Brexit for marine protected areas in the UK. It will explore how marine conservation is being framed during the negotiation process; the implications for management of the existing MPA network post Brexit; and the opportunities for reform to MPA governance in the future.

Recent publications:

MARINE POLICY, Vol. 77, March 2017, p78-89 The matrix revisited: A bird’s eye view of marine ecosystem service provision – Burdon, D., Potts, T., Barbone, C. and Mander, L. Available at:

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